This study was conducted among the market men and women of Gbagi Market in Ibadan, Nigeria. Data for some of the socio-demographic details are presented in table 1. The mean age of respondents was 40.81 ± 13.0 years with the minimum and maximum age being 19 years and 73 years respectively. A little below half (28.4%) were aged 31 – 50 years with some (26.9%) falling in the <30 years age bracket while few, (24.7%), falls within the age of 50 years and above. Majority (79.2%) were females while majority (76.6%) were of the Islamic faith. Majority, (82.7%), reported that they were married, some (8.2%) were single, and another, (6.2%) widowed when they were asked their marital status. Majority (91.5%) of respondents were of the Yoruba ethnic group while few, (7.2%) were of the Hausa ethic group.

 

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Table 1: Socio-demographic details

Demographics N %
Age*(N=93)
>30 25 26.9
31-50 45 48.4
≥50 23 24.7
Sex (N=96)
Male 20 20.6
Female 76 79.2
Religion (N=82)
Christianity 29 35.4
Islam 53 64.6
Marital Status (N=81)
Married 67 82.7
Single 8 8.2
Widowed 5 6.2
Divorced 1 1.2
Ethnic group (N=82)
Yoruba 75 91.5
Hausa 7 7.2

 

Table 2 Most common daily activity

Information on the most common daily activity was presented in table 2. More than one third (37.8%) of the respondent sit most hours of the day, some, (31.7%) of the respondent walk, while few (30.5%) of the respondent stand.

 

Table 2 Most common daily Activity

Activity N %
Sitting 31 37.8
Walking 26 31.7
Standing 25 30.5
Total 82 100.0

 

Table 3: Frequency of daily walking at a stretch by the respondents

Table 4.5 shows the reported frequency of daily walking at a stretch by the respondents. Majority, (73.3%) reported that they walk for up to 30 minutes daily, few, (16.7%) reported working for  less than 20 minutes while some,(10.0%) stated that they walk for only 20 to 30 minutes daily.

 

Table 3: Frequency of daily walking at a stretch by the respondents

Amount of time spent daily walking N %
>30 minutes 22 73.3
<20 minutes 5 16.7
20 – 30 minutes 3 10.0
Total 30 100.0

 

Engagement of respondents in physical activities

Table 4 shows the reported engagement of respondents in physical activity. More than half (51.9%) of the respondents reported that they engaged in physical activity while less than half (48.1%) stated that they do not do engage in physical activity.

 

Table 4: Engagement of respondents in physical activities

Engagement in any form of physical activity N %
Yes 40 51.9
No 37 48.1
Total 77 100.0

 

 Type of Physical activity engaged in by the respondents

Table 5 shows the type of Physical activity engaged in by the client. A little above half, (52.9%) stated that they engage in walking, some (29.4%) reported dancing, while few (17.6%) stated that hey engaged in playing football.

Table 5: Type Of Physical activity engaged in by the respondents

Amount of time spent daily walking N %
Walking 18 52.9
Dancing 10 29.4
Football 6 17.6
Total 34 100.0

 

Table 6: Frequency of engagement in physical activity by the respondent

Table 6 shows the frequency of engagement in physical activity by the respondent. Majority (62.5%) stated that they engaged in physical activity 7 times weekly, some, (21.9%) reported that they walk once in a week while few (21.9%) reported walking once in a week

Table 6: Frequency of engagement in physical activity by the respondent
Amount of time spent daily walking N %
Once in a week 7 21.9
2 times 1 3.1
3 –times weekly 3 9.4
4 times weekly 1 3.1
7- times weekly 20 62.5
Total 32 100

 

Table 7 Reported risky behaviours

The reported risky behaviours elicited by the respondent are shown in table 7 below.

Almost all, (97.6%) of the respondents stated that they do not smoke tobacco products while few (2.4%) said yes they do smoke tobacco products. Similarly, almost all, (97.6%) of the respondents stated that they do not drink alcohol while few (2.4%) said yes they consume alcohol

Table 7 Reported risky behaviours

Risk practices Yes (%) No (%) Total (%)
Tobacco smoking 2 (2.4)* 82 (97.6) 84 (100.0)
Alcohol consumption 2 (2.4)* 81 (97.6) 83 (100.0)

 

Table 8: How often do you eat fruits and vegetables?

The frequency of fruits and vegetable consumption by the respondents is shown in the table below. More than one third, (41.3%) reported that they take fruits and vegetables daily, some, (28.0%) reported consuming it less than 3 times per week, some, 18.7%) reported rarely consuming fruits and vegetables while few, (12.0%) reported consuming fruits  3 – 5 times per week.

Table 8: How often do you eat fruits and vegetables?

Frequency of fruits and vegetable consumption N %
Daily 31 41.3
<3 times per week 21 28.0
3 – 5 times per week 9 12.0
Rarely 14 18.7
Total 75 100.0

                                                                                                       

Table 9 Body Mass Index of the respondents

The BMI is a measure for representing the nutrition status in adults. It is defined as a person’s weight in kilograms divided by the square of the person’s height in metres (kg/m2)

The respondents Body Mass Index indicates that more than half, (39.6%) falls within the 18.5–24.9=Normal weight categorisation, less than one third(31.3%)falls within the range 25.0–29.9 Pre-obesity, few, (17.7%) falls within the range of 30.0–34.9= Obesity class I, few,(3.1%)  falls within the range of  40 and Above = Obesity class III while very few, (2.1%) falls within the range 35-39.99= Obesity class II

Table 9 Body Mass Index of the respondents

BMI of respondents(96) N %
Below 18.5= Underweight 6 6.3
18.5–24.9=Normal weight 38 39.6
25.0–29.9= Pre-obesity 30 31.3
30.0–34.9= Obesity class I 17 17.7
35-39.99= Obesity class II 2 2.1
40 and Above = Obesity class III 3 3.1
Total 96 100.0

 

Table 10: Systolic Blood pressure

The systolic blood pressure

The respondents systolic blood pressure shows that almost  half,  (44.8%) falls within the Normal Blood Pressure categorisation, less than one third(30.2%)falls within the range Prehypertension categorisation, few, (13.5%) falls within the Stage 1 HTN or Primary hypertension categorisation while few,  (11.5%)  falls within the Stage 2 HTN or Secondary hypertension categorisation (See table 10 for details).

Table 10: Systolic Blood pressure

Systolic Blood pressure(96) N %
Normal Blood Pressure 43 44.8
Prehypertension 29 30.2
Stage 1 HTN or Primary hypertension 13 13.5
Stage 2 HTN or Secondary hypertension 11 11.5
Total 96 100.0

 

Table 11: Systolic Blood pressure

The systolic blood pressure

The respondents diastolic blood pressure shows that majority, (63.5%) falls within the Normal diastolic Blood Pressure categorisation, less than one third (21.9%) falls within the range Prehypertension diastolic categorisation, few, (8.3%) falls within the Stage 1 HTN or Primary diastolic hypertension categorisation while few, (6.3%) falls within the Stage 2 HTN or Secondary diastolic hypertension categorisation (see table 10 for details).

Table 11 Diastolic Blood Pressure

Diastolic Blood pressure(96) N %
Normal Diastolic Bop 61 63.5
Prehypertension Diastolic Bop 21 21.9
Stage 1 HTN or Primary Diastolic Hypertension 8 8.3
Stage 2 HTN or secondary Diastolic Hypertension 6 6.3
Total 96 100.0

 

PAST HYSTORY OF MEDICAL CONDITION

The past medical history of the respondent was indicated in the table 12 below. Majority of the respondents stead that No’ they do not have a history of hypertension while few (9.6%) reported that Yes’ they have a previous medical diagnosis of hypertension.

All, (100.0%) of the respondents stead that No’ they do not have a previous medical diagnosis of diabetes

 

Table 12 PAST HYSTORY OF MEDICAL CONDITION

Medical history Yes (%) No (%) Total (%)
Hypertension 7(9.6)* 66 (90.4) 73 (100.0)
Diabetes 0 (0.0)* 72 (100.0) 72 (100.0)

 

There is a significant association between the development of hypertension and the age of the respondents. Majority (67.4%) of the respondents age 30-51 years had normal blood pressure compared to few, (23.3%) aged < 30 years. More of the respondents age < 30 years were more likely to be prehypertensive compare to respondents age 51 years and above. More than half, (58.3%) of the respondents were more likely to have stage 1 hypertension compare to few(25.0%) of the respondents age 31-51 years. Almost all (70.0%) of the respondents age 51 years and above were more likely to have stage II hypertension compare to few (30.0%) respondents aged 31-51 years who are less likely to develop the disease condition.

 

Table 13: CATEGORISATION OF SYSTOLIC HYPERTENSION BY AGE

Sex Age Categories Total (%) **X2 Df P-value
<30 years(%) 30-51 years %) 51 Years and above (%)
Normal Blood Pressure 10 (23.3) 29 (67.4) 4 (9.3) 43 (100.0) 31.994 6 0.000*
Prehypertension 13 (46.4) 10 (35.7) 5(17.9) 28 (100.0)
Stage 1 HTN or Primary hypertension 2 (26.7) 3(25.0) 7 (58.3) 12 (100.0)
Stage 2 HTN or Secondary hypertention 0(0.0) 3(30.0) 7(70.0) 10(100.0)
Total 25(26.9) 45(48.4) 23(24.7) 93(100.0)

*Not significant at P<0.05

*Chi square test statistics was used

About Dr Habeeb Ali Tunde

Dr. Habeeb Ali Tunde provides the most effective treatments to patients by integrating both conventional and alternative medicine that address all aspects of pain and wellness.

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